Kunming is known as the "Spring City" because there is no severe cold in winter, no high temperature in summer, and four seasons there are like spring.
In 2016, Kunming proposed to build a city brand of "The World's Spring Flower City" with its positioning and upgrading, so that Spring City's "flower business" will be upgraded gorgeously.
An inland capital city located in the southwest of China, to build " The World's Spring Flower City", How to realize this vision?
Get in touch with the flower, "flower business"
The literati is obsessed with the flowers of Kunming, that is, the people of the city, under the influence of the flower culture for thousands of years, they also developed a unique lifestyle with flowers.
In January, you can enjoy camellia, cherry blossoms in March, lotus flowers in June, chrysanthemums in September, and plum blossoms at the end of every year. This is the "calendar" for residents viewing flowers in Kunming.
Flower cakes filled with roses, fragrant flowers as souvenirs, different flowers blooming for four seasons in people’s gardens. This is the daily flower consumption of Kunming residents.
"Kunming has flowers blooming all year round." Wang Kunhua, deputy director of the Kunming Agriculture and Rural Bureau, said that the central Yunnan area where Kunming is located belongs to a low-latitude, high-altitude climatic zone with plenty of sunshine and a large temperature difference between day and night. One of the most suitable areas for developing flower production in the world.
Looking through historical materials, it is not difficult to find that Kunming people have a long history of planting flowers and grasses. Flowers have already become part of the lives of local people.
In addition to a long history of flower planting, Kunming people are also very keen on holding flower exhibitions and gathering flowers. Besides, Kunming people are also very keen on hosting flower exhibitions and gathering together for flower viewing.
In 1920, Yunnan officially hosted the "First Flower Show"; After the founding of New China, the first flower exhibition held in Kunming was the Camellia Exhibition at Cuihu Park in 1954. At that time, there were 3,000 pots on display;
In 1999, the Kunming World Horticultural Expo was held, which pushed Kunming’s long-standing flower culture to a new highlight as well as to the whole world. The continuous fragrant flowers business became the unique feature and business card of Kunming, the Spring City.
"Natural conditions are the foundation of flower planting, but culture is the soul of the flower industry. Kunming's advantages are obvious and unique at this point." Gao Rongmei, general manager of Kunming International Flower Auction and Trading Center said. Kunming has a long and rich flower culture, which is destined to form an indissoluble bond with flowers. "Flowers business" continues, the fragrance of flowers stays forever, and the creation of world-class flowers will come naturally.
In 2016, the 11th Party Congress of Kunming City proposed that Kunming will build "the World Spring Flower City, Historic-Cultural City, China’s Healthy City" and other urban brands, of which "World Spring Flower City" ranks first in Kunming city brand.
China Kunming International Flower Show was founded in 1995 and has been successfully held for 20 sessions so far, becoming a high-level trading event that has been leading the development of the Asian flower industry. At the 20th China Kunming International Flower Show held in July 2019, 47 horticultural companies from 18 countries including the Netherlands and Israel and more than 400 domestic flower companies participated.
The "wind vane" of the flower industry
"In the Chinese market, 7 out of every 10 fresh cut flowers come from Kunming." Dong Rui, the operating director of Dounan Flower Industry Group, introduced that there are more than 100 categories and more than 1,600 varieties of fresh-cut flowers traded in Dounan Flower Market. Fresh cut flowers are transported daily from here to more than 80 large and medium-sized cities across China by air, railway, and highway, and are exported to more than 50 countries and regions around the world.
Behind the figures, it reflects the extraordinary flower industry road in this small village of Dounan.
In the early 1980s, the villagers of Dounan planted the first gladiolus in the soil, which kicked off the Kunming fresh cut flower industry.
Today, this small village on the east bank of Dianchi Lake has become Asia's largest market for fresh cut flowers.
In 2019, the trading volume of fresh-cut flowers in the Dounan Flower Market reached 9.231 billion branches, with a transaction volume of 7.436 billion RMB. "Flowers from all over China gather here, with more than 10,000 flower brokers active in Dounan Flower Market." Dong Rui said that the entire market serves more than 300,000 flower growers in Yunnan.
In Dounan Flower Market, counterparty transactions, electronic auction and transactions, and other industries including online stores and the relevant flower industries are readily available. In addition to the flower trade, this is also a unique scenic spot, and many tourists to Kunming must arrange a tour of Dounan Flower Market.
Into the Kunming International Flower Auction and Trading Center in Dounan, a trading hall that can accommodate 600 people to bid at the same time. There are six auction clocks, merchants stare at the big screen, and the price cursor rotates counterclockwise from high to low to conduct a "price reduction auction."
"Dounan Flower Market is China's first, Asia's first, and the next goal is the world's first." From the beginning of small-scale market sales in Kunming to the beginning of the auction model around 2002, to the integration of the traditional market and auction, counterparty transactions, online transactions and other methods as a whole, Gao Rongmei is the witness of the development and growth of Dounan flower industry.
"In the beginning, the Kunming International Flower Auction and Trading Center only auctioned tens of thousands of branches a day, and now it has grown to an average of 3 million to 3.5 million branches a day." Gao Rongmei said, "In addition, we have also established flower trading standards to promote modernization, internationalization, standardization of the flower trading. "
Today, Dounan has become a "business card" of China's flower industry, known as the "wind vane" and "barometer" of China's flower industry.
In addition to Dounan, all counties in Kunming are also actively arranging flower trading and planting.
In Dunzi Village, where the Kunlian Yulian Flower Farmers Professional Cooperative is located in Jinning District, there were only a few people who planted flowers 20 years ago, and now almost every family grows flowers, and 126 farmers have joined the cooperative.
The cooperative is responsible for providing flower farmers with technical guidance, variety breeding, and product export services. The annual gross income of flowers sold there is about 20 million RMB. Zhou Yilian, the person in charge of the cooperative, said, "We export flowers by air and cold chain transportation, and the farthest can be sold to Russia."
Jinning District is located on the southwest coast of Dianchi Lake, and its fresh-cut flower planting area and output rank first among counties in Yunnan province. In 2019, the planting area of flowers and horticulture in the district reached over 3,500 hectares, of which fresh cut flowers planted an area of over 3,200 hectares and produced 4.1 billion fresh-cut flowers. Varieties with large planting areas include roses, carnations, gerbera, etc., and the flower agricultural output value is 2.2 billion RMB, processing output value of 3.28 billion RMB.
In recent years, with the continuous improvement of flower planting technology, the Jinning flower planting industry is changing the situation of "small scattered and weak", and the yield per hectare has reached new highs.
At the planting base of Yunnan Aibida Horticultural Technology Co., Ltd. located in Baofeng Street, Jinning District, the reporter of yn.xinhuanet.com saw that the greenhouses for potted flowers cover an area of 3 hectares and is divided into seedling planting area, soil loading area, irrigation area, production area, and packaging area. The entire base adopts assembly-line production. Through intelligent control, tidal irrigation and wastewater recycling technology, the potted plant production cycle can be accurate to the day, and the unit production capacity is greatly improved compared with traditional planting methods.
Du Qiaoling, the staff member in the company introduced that a pot of mini roses only needs about 68 days to cultivate here, while natural planting takes more than 3 months. The planting base can produce more than 3 million pots of mini roses in a year, with an average hectare output value of more than 15 million RMB.
Not only fresh cut flowers and potted flowers but Kunming's flower industry chain is also constantly expanding. Flower cakes made from edible roses, rose juice, rose sugar, etc., as well as various cosmetics made from flower extracts, have become popular souvenirs among citizens and tourists.
Dounan, which originally focused on flower planting and trading, is also making efforts to create AAAA-level flower town with scenic spots.
One street, one scene, all become "online influencers"
In late April, the jacaranda in Kunming entered the blooming period gradually. Every time the jacaranda is in full bloom, overlooking from the sky, the streets that are not spacious are like blue ribbons, attracting countless citizens to come to "check-in" and become a popular "influencer place" in Kunming in recent years.
The jacaranda introduced into Kunming from abroad, also known as the blue mist tree, is tall and beautiful and has good adaptability in Kunming. It can be seen in many streets in Kunming.
In June 2019, the Office of Kunming Municipal Government clearly proposed to enhance the characteristics of road landscapes and build “colorful and the most beautiful city roads", "beautiful communities", "beautiful forest belts" and "ring-flower belts". To beautify the urban space of this flower city and build the "colorful Kunming" all year round, highlighting the characteristics of Kunming.
"Flowers are a symbol of a city's quality of life. To create an exquisite urban landscape, not only must there be a large number of flowers and plants, but also advanced scientific design concepts." Bao Yanqiong, deputy director of Kunming City Administration Bureau, introduced the concept of "park city", in accordance with the principle of "one road, one scene", make full use of flowers, bush, grass and trees, rationally match flowers and colored leaf plants, integrate the floral elements of the surrounding buildings, and create a landscape-image road as a demonstration in this "flower city".
Bao Yanqiong introduced that Kunming will hold at least three large-scale floral events this year to improve the aesthetic abilities of flower practitioners and citizens. "Every main road's flowers and green plants must have a styling design, through these designs the citizens can feel the city's flower culture."
According to statistics, in 1985, the green space rate in the built-up area of Kunming was only 14.5%, and the per capita public green space was only 2.73 m2. By the end of 2017, the green space rate in the city's built-up areas reached 38.65%, and the park green area per capita reached 10.93 m2.
In order to avoid over-development in the park for the purpose of making profits, occupying public green space and activity space, Kunming City issued the "Code for Design of Park Green Space", which requires that the park greening land should not be less than 65%.
Kunming's efforts have finally ushered in the "harvest season" after continuously building the city image with flowers and green plants for many years. Walking on the streets of Kunming, the flower gardens and flower belts designed according to the characteristics of different blocks have their own characteristics, instead of the "hodgepodge" of potted flowers that were previously featureless.
The icing on the cake, the world's flower city
Since 2018, the Kunming International Flower Auction and Trading Center has held the “Flower Auction Night” for two consecutive years. In the second "Flower Auction Night" held in 2019, more than 2,500 practitioners and flower shop owners from the flower industry gathered together all over China.
"Just like the fashion industry holds fashion weeks every year." Gao Rongmei said that by publishing authoritative industry data, future industry expectations, releasing new varieties of flowers, holding flower T-shows, and other forms, "Flower Auction Night" has become a grand event that leads the trend of the flower industry.
"China currently consumes only seven or eight fresh cut flowers per capita a year, while other countries with the same income in the world consume about 50 per capita annually." In Gao Rongmei's view, with the rapid development of the social economy, the Chinese flower consumption market can be said to be the most promising market in the world.
Industry insiders believe that Kunming's flower industry now has many advantages:
First, it has the most complete flower industry system. The first, second, and third industries are highly integrated and it has the industrial system that can guarantee to create a world-class flower industry. No second city can be found nationwide, as Kunming can easily obtain all the resources needed for flower production.
Second, it has a perfect flower market system and has the right to speak and set the price to build a world-class flower industry. Relying on the Dounan flower trading market, Kunming Flower Industry has become an industry that effectively solves the problem of "difficult-to-sell" agricultural products among the national agricultural industry and Yunnan plateau-specific agriculture.
Third, it has strong R & D strength and talent advantages in the flower industry and has the ability to quickly localize the internationally popular flower variety technologies. At present, there are more than 300,000 employees in the flower industry in Kunming. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan Agricultural University, Flower Research Institute of Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and other scientific research institutes provide sufficient scientific and technological support for industrial development.
Experts believe that in the whole country and even Asia, the flower industry in Yunnan province is now in an important position, and Kunming's creation of the "World Spring Flower City" is just at the perfect timing.
In Dong Rui's view, to build the world's spring flower city, Kunming has both soft and hard abilities. The next step is to enlarge the advantages, fill in the shortcomings, build an integrated transaction and service platform so that farmers have good flowers to grow, then sell for a good price. And further, let industry and culture integrate deeply and create a good ecological environment.
According to Kunming ’s work plan for developing a unique flower industry and enhancing the brand of the world ’s spring flower city, the overall goal of the future construction is to construct a Chinese flower industrial ecology and Chinese flower supply chain that is in line with international standards, form a flower market and its logistics distribution center in China, in South Asia as well as in Southeast Asia, become a pricing center and guidance center that affects the price of flowers in the world, and build a major international flower event avenue, international flower-themed tourist attraction. In this light, Kunming is built into an industrial, cultural, and scenic flower capital city.
According to the relevant plan of the Kunming Municipal Government, it is estimated that by 2023, the Kunming city ’s flower planting area will be stabilized at over 15,000 hectares with a comprehensive output value of 50 billion RMB, fresh-cut flower output of 12 billion, and flower farmers' income of 11 billion RMB.
"World Spring Flower City" is stepping from the blueprint to reality step by step.