Research shows that Stomata, the microscopic pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells on the surfaces of leaves and stems, play an essential role in regulating the gas exchange between a plant and the surrounding atmosphere.
Stomatal development and opening are significantly influenced by environmental conditions, both in the short and long term. The rapid rate of current climate change has been affecting stomatal responses, as a new balance between photosynthesis and water-use efficiency has to be found.
Understanding the mechanisms involved in stomatal regulation and adjustment provides us with new insights into the ability of stomata to process information and evolve over time.
In this review, a summary is provided on the recent advances in research on the underlying mechanisms of the interaction between environmental factors and stomatal development and opening.
Specific emphasis is placed on the environmental factors including light, CO2 concentration, ambient temperature, and relative humidity, as these factors play a significant role in understanding the impact of global climate change on plant development.
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