Pelletized soy-based bioplastic fertilizers for container-crop production

Research examining biocontainers for container-crop production has demonstrated that bioplastics made from soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] can supply mineral nutrients to plants.

Using soybean-based bioplastics and biochar (BC), researchers created pelletized fertilizer designed to be incorporated into soilless substrate. They evaluated the growth of ‘Honeycomb’ marigold (Tagetes patula L.), ‘Montego White’ snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.), and ‘Laser Synchro Scarlet’ cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill.) grown with pelletized soy-based bioplastic fertilizers [soy-bioplastic polymer (SP.A) compounded with poly(lactic) acid (PLA) or polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), containing 15% or 25% BC] or a synthetic controlled-release fertilizer (CRF).

The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of prototype SP.A-based fertilizers and compare their performance to that of a traditional CRF for growing common greenhouse crops. In the first experiment, treatments of 0, 346, or 691 g nitrogen (N)/m3 of substrate from different fertilizer types were applied to marigold in containers with 15.2-cm top diameter, and in the second experiment, 0, 211, 423, 819, or 1638 g N/m3 were applied to marigold, snapdragon, and cyclamen in containers with 11.4-cm top diameter.

Marigolds grown in larger containers accumulated more shoot dry mass (SDM) when supplied with 346 or 691 g N/m3 from each type of the SP.A-based fertilizers than did plants in the nonfertilized control group. Plants supplied with synthetic CRF accumulated similar or greater SDM than plants supplied with the same rate of N from SP.A-based fertilizers.

In smaller containers, marigold and cyclamen provided with 211 or 423 g N/m3 from SP.A-based fertilizers accumulated more SDM than nonfertilized plants. Snapdragon provided with SP.A-based fertilizer grew poorly, and plants of this species died before the end of 5 weeks when provided the high and heavy rates of SP.A-based fertilizers. Plants fertilized with CRF had the largest SDM across the three species at most fertilizer concentrations.

Tissue N concentration and N uptake were greater for plants provided with SP.A-based fertilizers at most N rates (211, 423, 819 g N/m3) or synthetic CRF (all four rates) than for nonfertilized plants. The effectiveness of prototype SP.A-based fertilizers was better at common application rates (211 and 423 g N/m3), but showed a diminishing return at high and heavy rates of application (819 and 1638 g N/m3). The SP.A-based fertilizers made with PLA copolymer were more effective than those made with PHA.

The results serve as proof-of-concept that pelletized soy-based bioplastic fertilizers can be effective for meeting the nutrient needs of plants during containerized-crop production, but formulations require further development to improve their properties for use with a broad range of species and application rates.

Access the full study at HortScience.

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