CleanStart is a unique and innovative soil pest management programme that puts the best technologies and professional expertise at your service, allowing you to achieve the best farming results in a safe and sustainable way. In line with IPM principles, CleanStart offers a combination of chemical, biological, physical and agronomic tools for soil disinfestation, resulting in a reduced need for other post-planting treatments and a reduced environmental impact. The programme combines and alternates chemistry having different modes of action with the use of biopesticides, soil solarisation, biofumigation, soil mulching, resistant varieties and/or rootstocks, etc.
From the very beginning of this concept, the CleanStart programme included the use of soil fumigants and other disinfectants for materials and/or greenhouses structures with the aim of starting crops in a ‘sanitised’ environment. Certis also aims to provide local distributors, applicators and end users with more services and always recommends a pre-disinfestation soil analysis and diagnosis, covering soil temperature, moisture content and the presence of organic matter, all factors that determine fumigant performance. In addition, the tests are extended to include the identification of key pests that may be harmful for the crop. All this information contributes to the decision on making an application or not, which type of product to use and the correct application method, considering the problems in that specific plot. This is important to avoid the unnecessary use of chemicals in line with IPM principles.
A combination of products and solutions for the management of soil problems is now a reality in the Southern European countries, particularly in protected crops. Fumigants, post-transplanting chemical nematicides, biopesticides, grafted plants, solarisation and biofumigation are frequently used in combined control strategies for soil pests. For example, solarisation and biofumigation for fruiting vegetables in Southern Spain are widely applied. It has been proved that a preceding biofumigation using plant debris, plus solarisation to assure high temperatures, are compatible with the subsequent application of soil fumigants such as DD to control nematodes (e.g. Meloidogyne spp. in tomato).
Over the past five years the CleanStart programme was applied successfully in different greenhouses for fruiting vegetables in Spain (Murcia and Almería respectively) and in Italy (Sicily, Campania and Lazio respectively).
Peppers in Murcia, grown in loamy-clay soils, face problems of Phytophthora capsici, P. parasitica and Meloidogyne spp. The programme started with soil disinfestation applying Basamid in pre-plantation followed, after the transplant, by the biofungicide Tusal. The combined strategy (Basamid+Tusal) has obtained good results for growers.
Similar results were obtained using the CleanStart programme in tomatoes in Almería. Here, the soil in the greenhouses was covered with a layer of sand (typical practice to assure soil moisture), and after solarisation DD90 was applied (mainly targeting nematodes). Afterwards soil treatments with NemaClean (biological nematicide) and Tricheer (plant strengthener) were applied for the remainder of the crop cycle. The results of the strategy (solarisation+DD90+bionematicide) have demonstrated an improvement in the yield and quality of the production.
Figure 1: Tomato greenhouse
Zucchini is cultivated in Sicily in tunnels in sandy soil and is frequently and severely affected by Fusarium spp. The Cleanstart strategy (Basamid applied in combination with solarisation and followed in post planting application of Tusal) has shown better results compared to the standard strategy of the farm. This effect was also clearly seen in the second crop cultivated in the same tunnel (Fig. 2).
Figure 2: CleanStart strategy to control Fusarium spp. in zucchini
For strawberry in Huelva (Spain), applications of the combinations of Basamid and DD, or in particular the new development of Basamid/Metam in combined use with the new fumigant DMDS, have proved to be good options to assure high strawberry production in an area with soil-sickness problems.
After years of working in disinfestation with combinations of chemical and biological products and other alternative solutions in the CleanStart programme, results have shown effective control of soil pests during the whole crop cycle, including interesting broad-spectrum activity and obtaining good yields and quality of production.
Technologies used in CleanStart programme
The number of products and solutions within the Certis’ portfolio to control soil-borne pathogens and nematodes has increased over the years along with the associated technical expertise within the company. The CleanStart portfolio of soil treatment products includes Basamid (dazomet), DD (1,3-dichloropropene), metam sodium, metam potassium, Mocap (ethoprophos), Jet 5 biocide (peracetic acid), as well as biological products such as Tusal (Trichoderma spp.), NemGuard (garlic extract) - only available in some countries, and other biopesticides under development. Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS) will also be part of the Certis CleanStart portfolio in the future in two formulations: EC (94.1%) for drip irrigation in protected crops and open field, and AL (99.1%) for shank application in field crops. Accolade (the DMDS product brand) is already being used successfully under derogations in Italy (2015 and 2016) and commercial large-scale experimental permit in Spain (2016).
Figure 3: Personal protection equipment
Alongside the products, a pan-European fumigation stewardship programme has been developed to support sustainable soil fumigation practice, followed by appropriate measures to ensure safe use by minimising the impact of the product on the environment and human health. The Certis stewardship programme for fumigants considers the following points to be important:
- compulsory training for applicators (and workers) to apply the product safely for themselves, the surrounding residents and the environment including the cleaning of small spills and leaks;
- introduction of Best Management Practice to understand Good Agricultural Practice for soil fumigation in general terms (soil and weather conditions) as well as specific product related subjects and issues;
- development of specific plastic films based on TIF technology, training on the way to use best the films;
- compulsory regular machinery testing on compatibility, calibration and maintenance;
- infrastructure and instructions for safe disposal of empty packaging and used tarping.
Successful soil pest management requires good knowledge of all the conditions determining efficacy i.e. pests, crops (cultivars and/or rootstocks), soil conditions, products or other technical solutions, appropriate application systems and/or machinery, etc. Their smart use in integrated strategies (product and solution combinations) is vital to guarantee sustainable crop protection in EU agriculture.
Certis will remain engaged in sustainable soil pest management and is continuously working to identify new local strategies, within the CleanStart programme, to protect crops from soil-borne pathogens.
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