This study was conducted to observe the effects of exogenous gibberellic acid3 (GA3) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) treatments on the growth and inflorescence initiation of Phalaenopsis and to determine whether hormonal applications can substitute for low-temperature exposure for floral transition. Phalaenopsis Queen Beer ‘Mantefon’ clones were treated with no hormones (control), GA3 100 mg/L, GA3 200 mg/L, BAP 100 mg/L, and GA3 100 mg/L + BAP 100 mg/L by foliar spray.
The treatments were carried at 28 °C for vegetative growth and 20 °C for forcing, respectively. At 28 °C of vegetative temperature, all exogenous hormonal treatments did not induce inflorescence initiation, but lateral shoots were observed in BAP-treated plants even though this plant is a monopodial orchid. GA3 significantly increased leaf length and decreased leaf width, and consequently increased length:width (L:W) ratio compared with the control and BAP alone. The trend grew as GA3 concentration increased. Also, the GA3 increased stem length and decreased stem diameter. At 20 °C of forcing temperature, L:W ratio responded similarly to 28 °C in GA3 treatments, but leaf size was smaller than for the control or BAP alone.
BAP accelerated inflorescence emergence and significantly increased inflorescence numbers, whereas GA3 and GA3 + BAP slightly delayed inflorescence emergence. GA3 significantly promoted new leaf development at 20 °C of forcing condition. These results indicated that cytokinin was associated with the break of axillary vegetative and inflorescence meristems and exogenous GA3 spray did not improve inflorescence initiation in Phalaenopsis. Although exogenous hormonal application did not substitute for low-temperature exposure, it showed a possibility in promoting the growth and inflorescence initiation.
Lee, H.B.; Im, N.H.; An, S.K.; Kim, K.S. Changes of Growth and Inflorescence Initiation by Exogenous Gibberellic Acid3 and 6-Benzylaminopurine Application in Phalaenopsis Orchids. Agronomy 2021, 11, 196. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020196