Intellectual property rights can be classified as copyrights and industrial property rights. Copyrights cover intellectual and artistic works. Industrial property rights, on the other hand, cover patents, trademarks, brands, and designs. At a high level, while living things that exist in nature cannot be patented, living things that have been modified or created by human hands can. For example, while genetically modified microorganisms, plants, and animals can be patented, living things such as humans or human embryos cannot.

A patent is a document that gives the owner of an invention exclusive rights for a certain time. Patents are for new and industrially applicable inventions. Patent application is made by submitting the necessary documents to the relevant institution.

Patenting in plants is a system developed by plant breeders to protect new genotypes, that is, new varieties. With this process, defined as registration, all rights arising from the production, sale, and commercial use of the new variety are allocated to the breeder person, organization, or company under the name of intellectual property right, breeder’s right, or royalty.